Have you heard about the IMS Centralized Services (ICS)? The basic idea is fairly simple. We want to apply services for IMS subscribers, regardless what access network they use. We know that in IMS we can do it for all IP-based access domains. But if the subscriber is accessing through the legacy CS network (e.g. because of a low LTE coverage in her area), we are still triggering the services in the CS Core network … right, unless we have the ICS in place. So ICS enables the IMS services even when one is using CS access for the media bearer.
IMS Centralized Services
The ICS is specified in GSMA IR.64 and 3GPP TS 23.292, 23.237 and 23.216. The scope of the specification includes:
- Session establishment when using CS access for media transmission for an IMS service
- Support of Service Continuity
- Support of Single Radio Voice Call Continuity
- Access Domain Selection (ADS)
- IMS control of services where the media is transported via the CS network (e.g. managing of mid-call services)
- Service data management
The solution is applicable for UEs with or even without ICS functionality. As the first step all the sessions have to be anchored in the IMS. That is a job for Service Centralization and Continuity Application Server (SCC AS). The SCC AS is on the signalling path for both the originating and terminating services. Using the initial Filter Criteria (IFC), the SCC AS is triggered as the first AS for originating sessions and as the last for terminating sessions.
There are two big enemies of mobile communication. Weak signal and battery drain. With the LTE technology in place we need to deal with the situation when our signal gets too weak. The higher frequencies have a problem to penetrate walls, currently the radio network is not covering whole country yet, etc.. these problems seems to be only temporary (as the LTE is moving forward) but at this point of time we can’t rely on the LTE network only. When we are out of 4G coverage while we are not calling we’ll simply fallback to CS network and VoLTE supports CS breakout or CS retry so our voice service is still working.
But what if it happens during an ongoing call? Can we handover and still maintain the session? It is possible but not easy as because of the battery drain we can access only one radio network at the time. What we are looking for is called enhanced Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (eSRVCC) and it is described in the GSMA IR.64 and ETSI TS 124 237. (SRVCC is applied during PS to CS access transfer in a single radio system from LTE to 3G/2G. For devices that support active WiFi, and 3G/2G and LTE dual radio, the enhanced Dual Radio Voice Call Continuity (eDRVCC) is applied.)
eSRVCC call flow is probably one of the most complex flows you can encounter in VoLTE. Read firstly about the basic flows VoLTE in IMS. In case of doubts or when more scenarios/details needed please refer to the spec.
To allow this functionality we need to add some more IMS elements in the network:
Access Transfer Control Function (ATCF)
ATCF acts as SIP signalling anchor and is located in the SIP signalling path between P-SCSF and S-CSCF. Very often it is part of the SBC. ATCF controls the ATGW, where the media plane is anchored. During the session transfer, the ATCF establishes a new session with the SCC AS. This new session substitutes the old session between the ATCF and the SCC AS.
Access Transfer Gateway (ATGW)
The ATGW anchors the media session.
Service Centralization and Continuity Application Server (SCC AS)
The SCC AS anchors originated and terminated sessions when using the PS or CS access. It is also responsible for the Terminating Access Domain Selection (T-ADS).