It has been 3 years since I started this blog. It was around that time back in 2014 when I heard about 5G for the first time. It was funny, we were just doing the first 4G/VoLTE deployments, everything was new to operators and someone was already dreaming about the next version 🙂 In 2017 the 5G is still not finalized but we have done quite a few steps forward and 3GPP has created a lot of specifications (Rel-15) which uncover the concept (actually we have 5GPP too!). Maybe you have already heard about some features as Dynamical Network Slicing, CloudRAN, Network-as-a-Services, … Some basic principals we’ll briefly discussed also in this post. However my question is: What will be the change from the real-time communication point of view? Is the IMS to stay in the operators’ networks?
Seems that at the first stage the change will be less dramatic than when we introduced 4G. 4G was in many ways a revolution, whereas 5G is “only” an evolution. In fact 4G and 5G, at least in the beginning, will coexist and complement one each other. Still 5G will have a big impact on our existing technologies and the way we work with telecommunication networks.
5GS + EPC + IMS
Before I’ll finish a new post about 5G I decided to take a break and create a presentation which would complement VoLTE Basic Flows.
Btw. I can’t find the option on slideshare which would allow to update the material .. does anyone know??
I have never planned to talk about such an operator specific matter as KPIs. But since I posted NEWS: Telco Monitoring I’m receiving many questions related to this topic and I guess we can discuss at least the basic principles.
If you have read the VoLTE standards such as GSMA IR.92 or VoLTE Service Description and Implementation Guidelines, you probably noticed that performance monitoring is more or less ignored. And at the same time all operators are asking about it. What KPIs to watch, how, what are the guidelines?
I like statistics. Sometimes it can be misleading or data can be hard to interpret. But it can help us when we struggle to see the forest for the trees.
The last two years the IP-based mobile technologies were booming. If you are working with 4G networks you know it well. This year however the number of new deployments decreased significantly (Sep 2017, source GSMA).
IP Deployments Sep-17
Well, there can be many reasons for that. Rather than guessing, let’s have a fun and take a look on how popular are some telco topics on Google in the last 3 years.
I’ve just recently changed my job and that reminded me, what it means to start from the beginning again. To help those of you who have just started with VoLTE/IMS I’ve created a short presentation.
Let me know if it works (and maybe one day I’ll find some to make a recording too 🙂 ). Good luck!
Have you heard about the IMS Centralized Services (ICS)? The basic idea is fairly simple. We want to apply services for IMS subscribers, regardless what access network they use. We know that in IMS we can do it for all IP-based access domains. But if the subscriber is accessing through the legacy CS network (e.g. because of a low LTE coverage in her area), we are still triggering the services in the CS Core network … right, unless we have the ICS in place. So ICS enables the IMS services even when one is using CS access for the media bearer.
IMS Centralized Services
The ICS is specified in GSMA IR.64 and 3GPP TS 23.292, 23.237 and 23.216. The scope of the specification includes:
- Session establishment when using CS access for media transmission for an IMS service
- Support of Service Continuity
- Support of Single Radio Voice Call Continuity
- Access Domain Selection (ADS)
- IMS control of services where the media is transported via the CS network (e.g. managing of mid-call services)
- Service data management
The solution is applicable for UEs with or even without ICS functionality. As the first step all the sessions have to be anchored in the IMS. That is a job for Service Centralization and Continuity Application Server (SCC AS). The SCC AS is on the signalling path for both the originating and terminating services. Using the initial Filter Criteria (IFC), the SCC AS is triggered as the first AS for originating sessions and as the last for terminating sessions.
Even in 2017 the telephone number remains the most universal identifier for real-time communication. And as the word is moving to be All-IP, we have to be able to translate the number into something more meaningful for routing in IP networks. The GSMA organization selected for this purpose the Electronic Number Mapping System (ENUM) and in 2007 released the first version of PRD IR.67.
ENUM based Routing
Moreover Mobile Operators in over 50 countries have to support Mobile Number Portability (MNP). Although for MNP is a great feature for end subscribers, it makes the signalling more complex and costly for the Operators. The MNP is not just a problem for signalling (routing) but also for billing and management of interconnect agreements. Last but not least it can be a significant issue for content and application providers who may not be aware of the change of the operator for a particular user.